Pai Bridge

The bridge over the River Pai is often cited as the most conspicuous evidence of the presence of the Imperial Japanese Army
in Thailand during WWII. Unfortunately the statement is in error, as is much other information about that period . . . .


Japan in Northwest Thailand during World War II


Ban Kat[1a] (Th: บ้านกาด / Jp: バンガート村)[1b]
page 1 of 2[2]

 Route 1013
Station 008.95


Text Notes


Maps will be provided as available. Modern map sources are oftentimes limited by copyright, including the current series (7018) by the Royal Thai Survey Department (RTSD). The older RTSD series (7017), while not apparently under copyright, is a problem because data on the maps are obsolete; plus the datum used for coordinates, the "Indian Datum", is obsolete. The standard today is the WGS84 (World Geodetic System 1984). It is used on the RTSD's current 7018 series; and by both Google Earth and PointAsia, and is the default choice for Garmin GPS devices. Garmin instruments do offer "Indian-Thai 1975" Datum as an alternate choice and can convert locations input in this datum to WGS84 (conversely, locations input in WGS84 can be converted to Indian-Thai 1975 datum). If coordinates from both systems are used without correction, there may be difference of nearly 0.4 km (370 meters) in apparent location.

As a consequence, modern maps on this website are taken primarily from:

Thai Highway Department atlas [แผนที่ทางหลวงประเทสไทย
    (กรุงเทพมหานคร:กรมทางหลวง, 2009) [Road Map of Thailand
    (Bangkok: Department of Public Highways, 2009)]]
Internet websites:
    Google Earth

Unless specifically noted otherwise, north on maps is always to the top of the page.

It is acknowledged that map scales are generally not given.

Author's photos are referenced by camera assigned number and date in the format, typically of "CIMGxxxx dd-Mmm-yyyy". Suffixes to the camera assigned number indicate a cropped photo. For example, the information for the cropped photo below is CIMG5018a.jpg, 04 Oct 2009.

Two sisters with translator


Unless otherwise noted, all photos are by author. Photos from other sources are identified with information as available from those sources.

Useful references:

Dan Ford:

An Introduction to the Japanese Army Air Force.
JAAF deployments against Rangoon, December-March.



Continued on page two



















Revision List
2012 Apr 30
First published on Internet
2012 Aug 29
Text rephrased
Future changes, if small, will be identified and dated only in Notes column.




See Key for interpreting page content (this is Key page).

0. A Revision List appears near the bottom of the first page of each webpage series and each 'index', 'subindex', 'about us', and 'contact us' pages, and . It will show dates of issue and changes of pages and summaries of those changes. Minor changes will not be tallied in this list, but will be commented and dated in the Notes column.

Bibliography supports notes.

1.^ Location coordinates are displayed in the heading in the format dd° (the minute symbol is omitted). In a few cases, coordinates may be expressed to greater accuracy; ie, dd°mm.mmm.

Most positions given are per Google Earth, which warns that its data should not be used for navigation. However, in most cases, that accuracy is sufficiently reliable for use here. As I can, I will verify coordinates on-site with a Garmin GPS12 and change here if needed.

In a few cases, coordinates may be from Royal Thai Survey Department maps, and will be noted as "RTSD" along with the map title. All such points should have been converted to WGS84 Datum.

1a.^ Place names: where available, Royal Thai Survey Department (RTSD) versions of place names in both Thai and English are used; nonetheless, the English versions do not necessarily conform to the Thai government's published standards of transliteration. RTSD maps include no Japanese transliterated place names; when such are available from other sources, they are used. If not available, they are transliterated as closely as possible to the Thai in Katakana.

1b.^ The name in English is followed in parentheses with the name in Thai ("Th:") followed by the name in Japanese ("Jp:"); the last is almost always in Katakana.

2.^ Some pages contain no page counts, such as "index", subindex, "contact", and "about us" pages.

3.^ Thai national highway route numbers are used when available with stationing determined from the white concrete highway kilometer markers located along roadsides, plus odometer readings for fractions.

Formatting for stationing is typically 000.0. In this example, marker "9" on Road 1013 was used as reference,

Kilometer marker 9(CIMG3521a.jpg, 24 Jul 2008)

but the main intersection in the town was just before so it appears at the top of the page as just short of "009", thus "008.95". The right side translates as Mae Wang 5 km and Mae Win 17 km.

Roads with no numbers are identified by whatever means appropriate, with stationing dependent upon odometer readings.