Pai Bridge

The Pai River bridge is often cited as the most visible evidence of the presence of Japan's Army in Northern Thailand during WWII.
But the bridge was actually built after the war. This website attempts to correct both that misconception and others about the period.


Japan in Northwest Thailand during World War II

Bibliography & Suggested Reading



Text Notes

Note (28 Nov 2021): to be updated

13th Bomb Squadron: Combat Tactics

A2Z Atlas of Northern Thailand (Bangkok: PN Map, nd)

Aces High Bulletin Board: HiTech, you may check real MG-FF dispersion here


Air America, Air Facilities Data Thailand 432 (Udorn? Flight Information Center? 1971) [copy]

Air of Authority - A History of RAF Organisation:  No 26 - 30 Squadron Histories

---, No 41-45 Squadron Histories

---, No 66-70 Squadron Histories

---, No 86-90 Squadron Histories

---, No 211-215 Squadron Histories

Allen, Louis, Burma, The Longest War, 1941-1945 (London: Phoenix, 1984) (reprint 2001)

Amphoe Maps Scale 1:250,000 (Bangkok: Royal Thai Survey Department, 1986-99)

Barker, AJ, Japanese Army Handbook: 1939-1945 (New York: Hippocrene, 1979)

Batson, Benjamin A, 'Siam and Japan: the Perils of Independence', in McCoy, Alfred W, ed, Southeast Asia under Japanese Occupation (New Haven CT: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1980), pp 267-302 [excerpt copied]

Battlefront Forum: Combat Mission: Fortress Italy

Bayly, Christopher & Tim Harper, Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia 1941-1945 (Cambridge MA: Belknap Press, 2005)

Bergerud, Eric M, Fire in the Sky: the Air War in the South Pacific (Boulder CO: Westview, 2000)

Bergin, Bob, "Flying Tiger, Burning Bright", Aviation History, July 2008, pp 24‑31

Berrigan, Darrell, "They Smuggle Dope by the Ton", Saturday Evening Post, 05 May 1956, pp 157-158

Bharat Rakshak: No 1 Squadron (Indian Air Force)

Bholsithi, Wisarut: (with apologies) too many references to list individually (see individual note references). He maintains a voluminous correspondence on forums, 2bangkok, Axishistory, and Rotfaithai, amongst others.

Bicknell, Edward, 30 Squadron RAAF Beaufighter Association

Boggett, David, 'Japan's "Burma Road": Reflections on Japanese Military Activities in Northern Thailand', Journal of Kyoto Seika University 2000, No 18, pp 90-106

Boggett, David, Notes on the Thai-Burma Railway, Part IX, The Kra Isthmus Railway, Journal of Kyoto Seika University, 27:26-45

Børvik, Tore, Ballistic Penetration and Perforation of Steel Plates (Trondheim:Fakultet for ingeniørvitenskap og teknologi, 2000)

Brown, AS, "Indian Days and Burmese Nights: Flying Beaufighters in Southeast Asia with 177 RAF Squadron" in Canadian Military History, 1995 (4:2:2), pp 9‑22

Brown, Atholl S, Silently into the Midst of Things: 177 Squadron Royal Air Force in Burma, 1943-1945 History and Personal Narratives (Victoria, BC: Trafford, 2001)

Burinsuchat, Jessada, Non-Traditional Security, International Police Cooperation and the Royal Thai Police (thesis) (Canberra: Australian National University, 2017)

Carter, KC, and R Mueller, US Army Air Forces in World War II: Combat Chronology 1941-1945 (Washington DC: Center for Air Force History, 1991)

CBI Order of Battle: 10th AF Bomber / Fighter / Commando / Liaison Units

CBI Order of Battle: 14th AF Units

Chapman, F Spencer, The Jungle is Neutral (Falmouth: Triad/Granada, 1982)

Charoenmuang, Tanet, Thailand: A Late Decentralizing Country (Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai University, 2006)

Cherdchay Chomtawat, Khun Yuam Memories of Japanese Soldiers in World War 2 (Chiang Mai: Bunsuri, 2003) [Japanese language version, ©: 第二次世界大戦でのクンユアムの人々の 日本の兵隊さんの思い出  著者:警察署長チューチャイ・チョムタワット]

Cherdchay Chomtawat, Khun Yuam Memories of Japanese Soldiers in World War 2 (self published? 2003) (Thai language version) [ทหารญี่ปุ่นในความทรงจ่าบองชาวบุนยวม  ในสมัยสงครามโลกครั้งที่2   โดย . . . พันตำรวจโท เชิดชาย ชมธวัช, no © notice]

Cherdchay, Chomtawat, About Japanese soldiers traveling through Amphur Khun Yuam in World War 2 [15 interviews](no publication data, but before 2004) [บ้อมูลเส้นทางเดินทัพทหารญี่ปุ่นในอำเภอชุนยวม สงครามมหาเอเชียบูรพา (สงครามโลกครั้งที2)    จัดทำโดย พันตำรวจโท เชิดชาย ชมธวัช, no © notice]

Chiang Mai and Nearby Provinces [map: CD and paper] (Bangkok: ThinkNet, 2007)

Chiang Mai Big Map (Vientiane? Finder Map, Oct 2006)

Chin, Ko-Lin, The Golden Triangle: Inside Southeast Asia's Drug Trade (Ithaca: Cornell, 2009)

China-Burma-India Joint Intelligence Collection Agency, Transportation Report Road, Railroad, and Inland Waterways: Asiatic Area (New Delhi: China-Burma-India Joint Intelligence Collection Agency, 15-31 Oct 1944) (USAF Archive microfilm reel A8044: pp 0139-0140)

Complete National Geographic 110 Years, The, CD-ROM set (?: Riverdeep, 2002)

Cook, Haruko & Theodore, Japan at War: An Oral History (New York: The New Press, 1992)

Coulter, Henry T, The Book of What, Where and How: the most comprehensive printed source of information for Chiang Mai (Chiang Mai: Bow, 1994)

Craig, William, The Fall of Japan: the Tumultuous Events of the Final Weeks of World War II in the Pacific (New York: Dial Press, 1967)

Craw, Sir Henry, "The Burma Road", The Geographical Journal XCIX:5-6 (1942), pp 238-247

Crisswell, Colin N, The Taipans: Hong Kong's Merchant Princes (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1981)

Dawes, Gavin, Prisoners of the Japanese (New York: Quill, 1994)

Devakul, ML Chititewan Pete, Thailand's Chiang Mai: the Bird's Eye View (Bangkok: Amarin, 2000)

Donovan, Patrick H, 'Oil Logistics in the Pacific War: Oil's Role in Japan's Decision for War' in Old Lessons New Thoughts (?: Air Force Logistics Management Agency,?)

Downer, Lesley, The Brothers: the Hidden World of Japan's Richest Family (New York: Random House, 1994)

Drea, Edward, In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army (Lincoln NE: Univ of Nebraska Press, 1998; reprint 2003)

Edwards, Leslie, Kohima: the Furthest Battle: the story of the Japanese Invasion of India in 1944 (Stroud Gloucestershire: History Press, 2009)

Eng-Tips Forums 1930s British Steel Sections

Engelbrecht, HC, and FC Hanighen, Merchants of Death: Study of the International Armament Industry (New York: Dodd, Mead, & Co, 1939)

Find A Grave:
   Bertel Thornagkul
   Dr Dana Thornagkul Lee
   Thora Purdom

Fineman, Daniel, A Special Relationship: the United States & Military Government in Thailand, 1947-1958 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997)

Fischer, David H, Historians' Fallacies (New York: Harper & Row, 1970)

Ford, Daniel, Flying Tigers: Claire Chennault and his American Volunteers, 1941-1942, updated edition (Washington: Smithsonian, 2007)

Forty, George, Japanese Army handbook: 1939-1945 (Phoenix Mill UK: Sutton, 1999)

Frances, Neil, Ketchil: A New Zealand pilot's war in Asia and the Pacific (Masterton NZ: Wairarapa Archive, 2005)

Fraser, George MacDonald, Quartered Safe Out Here: A Recollection of the War in Burma (New York: Harper Collins, 1992; reprinted ----: Akadine Press, 2001)

Frei, Henry, Guns of February: Ordinary Japanese Soldiers' Views of the Malayan Campaign & and the Fall of Singapore (Singapore: Singapore University, 2004)

Fujitani, T, et al, ed, Perilous Memories: The Asia-Pacific War(s) (Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2001)

Fujiwara, Iwaichi, F Kikan: Japanese army intelligence operations in SE Asia during WWII, tr by Akashi Yoji (Hong Kong: Heinemann Asia, 1983) [excerpts, copied]

Gibney, Frank, ed, Senso: the Japanese Remember the Pacific War (Armonk NY: Sharpe, 2007), transl by Beth Cary

Goel, RA, et al, "Behaviour of a Kinetic Energy Projectile on Angular Impact",Defence Science Journal(38:3), Jul 1988, pp 293-299

Goodden, Christian, Around Lan-Na (Halesworth: Jungle Books, 1999)

Goodden, Christian, Hinterlands (Halesworth: Jungle Books, 2001; printed in Thailand)

Goodden, Christian, Three Pagodas (Bangkok: Darnsutha, 2002)

Goodden, Christian, Trek It Yourself (Halesworth:  Jungle Books, 2000; printed in Thailand)

Google Earth

Grabowsky, Volker & Andrew Turton, The Gold and Silver Road of Trade and Friendship: the McLeod & Richardson Diplomatic Missions to Tai States in 1837  (Chiang Mai: Silkworm, 2003)

Graham, WA, Siam: A Handbook of Practical, Commercial, and Political Information (Chicago: Browne, 1913) [also on-line:]

Grant, Ian and Kazuo Tamayama, Burma 1942: the Japanese Invasion - Both sides tell the Story of a Savage Jungle War (Chichester: Zampi, 1999)

Green Tree LLP, Ltd, Japanese Soldiers Cemetery Education Project WWII Era Mae Hong Son (Chiang Mai: Archaeology & National Museum, Dept 6, 1999) รายงาน การ สําร จอขุดค้น ตาม โครงการ คึกษาเชิงอนรักษ์แหล่งฝังศพทหารญี่บุน สมัย สงครามโลกครั้งที่ 2 จังหวัดแม่ฮ่องสอน หัางหุ้นส่วนจํากัดเฌอกรีน

Halberstam, David, The Coldest Winter: American and the Korean War (New York: Hyperion, 2007)

Hallett, Holt S, A Thousand Miles on an Elephant in the Shan States (Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1890) (reprint: Bangkok: White Lotus, 1988)

Handbook on Japanese Military Forces (Washington: USGPO, 1944) (reprint: Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ, 1991)

Hardy, David, 'There's Zero Interest in this Village!' in Good Morning Chiang Mai, (magazine) May 2000, pp 12-15

Hargreave, Oliver, Exploring Chiang Mai: City, Valley & Mountains (Chiang Mai: Within Books, 2002)

Harries, Meirion & Susie, Soldiers of the Sun: the Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army (New York: Random, 1991)

Haseman, John B, The Thai Resistance Movement During World War II (Bangkok: Chalermnit, nd) [copy]

Haseman, John B, The Thai Resistance Movement During World War II (Chiang Mai: Silkworm, 2002)

Hashimoto, Takehiko, Ruikotsu no tani : Biruma Heitan Byōin kaimetsuk (Valley of Bones: Burma's destroyed hospital records) (Tōkyō : Ōshisha, 1979) [ 橋本武彦, 累骨の谷  ビルマ兵站病院壊滅記 (東京: 旺史, 1979)]

Hastings, Max, Retribution: the Battle for Japan, 1944-45 (New York: Knopf, 2007)

History of Kruba Sriwichai: The Buddhist Saint of Northern Thailand (Chiang Mai: Sutin Press, 2009) (in English and Thai)

History of War: No. 176 Squadron (RAF): Second World War

---, No. 177 Squadron (RAF): Second World War

Horstmann, Alexander and Reed L Wadley, Centering the Margin: Agency and Narrative in Southeast Asian Borderlands (New York: Berghahn Books, 2009)

Howard, Alexander, & Ernest Newman, The Menacing Rise of Japan: Ninety Years of Crafty Statesmanship in Pictures (London: George G Harrap, 1943)

Hudson, ERB, 'Disaster at the Sittang Bridge - Burma 1942', The Royal Engineer Journal(106:1) April 1992 (April 1992 Journal Awards reprint)

Ichimaruichikai, Dokuji, Wadachi no ato: biruma sensen [Burma Campaign: Chino's Mark] (Tokyo: Dokuji Ichimaruichika, 1985)  [自動車第百一大隊編集委員会編,  わだちの跡 : ビルマ戦線  (東京: 独自一〇一会, 1985)]

Ienaga, Saburo, The Pacific War, 1931-1945: A Critical Perspective on Japan's Role in World War II (New York: Pantheon, 1978)

Imperial Japanese Army Page: Type 97 Medium Tank "Chi-Ha"

---, Type 97-57mm Tank Gun

Inoue, Tomoyoshi, Hōkō biruma sensen [Wandering the Burma Front] (Yamaguchi: Omura, 1988) [ 井上朝義, 彷徨ビルマ戦線 (山口: 井上朝義, 1988)]

Inthawichayanon Map of Chiang Mai, 1893

Isby, D, intro, and J Ethell, afterword, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991)

Ito, Masanori, et al, ed  Jitsuroku taiheiyō sensō [Annals of the Pacific War], 7 vol (Tokyo: Chuokoron-sha, 1960) [伊藤正徳,  実録太平洋戦争 (東京: 中央公論社, 1960)]

Jackson, Dan, The Forgotten Squadron (Atglen PA: Schiffer Military History, 2010)

Johnson, Chalmers, Conspiracy at Matsukawa (Berleley: University of California Press, 1972)

Kaplan, David E, and Alex Dubro, Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003)

Kato hayabusa sento-tai [Kato's Falcon Squadron], DVD (Tokyo: Toho, 1944) [ 加藤隼戦闘隊 (東京: 東宝, 1944)]

Keane, Fergal, Road of Bones: the Epic Siege of Kohima 1944 (London: HarperPress, 2011)

Kirby, S Woodburn, The War against Japan, Vol I: Loss of Singapore (London: HMSO, 1957 (reprint by London: Naval & Military Press, 2004))

Kirby, S Woodburn, The War against Japan, Vol II: India's most Dangerous Hour (London: HMSO, 1958)

Kirby, S Woodburn, The War against Japan, Vol III: Decisive Battles (London: HMSO, 1961)

Kirby, S Woodburn, The War against Japan, Vol IV: Reconquest of Burma (London: HMSO, 1965 (reprint by London: Naval & Military Press, 2004))

Kirby, S Woodburn, The War against Japan, Vol V: Surrender of Japan (London: HMSO, 1969 (reprint by London: Naval & Military Press, 2004))

Kpenyigba, KM, Tomasz Jankowiak, Alexis Rusinek, Raphaël Pesci, 
"Influence of projectile shape on dynamic behavior of steel sheet subjected to impact and perforation", Thin-Walled Structures, Vol 65, pp 93-104 - 2013

Laosunetaun, Niyada, PhD [Papa: First Gendarme of Siam (original in Thai), ศาสตราจารย์ ดร. นิยะดา เหล่าสุนทร, ปาปา: ฌองดามรุ่นแรกชองสยามประเทส]

Latimer, Jon, The Forgotten War (London: John Murray, 2004)

Lea, Homer, The Valor of Ignorance (New York: Harper, 1942)

Lebra, Joyce C, Japanese Trained Armies in Southeast Asia, Reprint (Singapore: ISEAS, 2010)

Lieutenant–Colonel August Theodor Frederic Kolls (1867-1911, Scandasia: Denmark/History & Heritage/Thailand, 10 Dec 2012

Lumholdt, Niels & William Warren, The History of Aviation in Thailand (Hong Kong: Everbest, 1987)

Maddox, Robert F, 'Senator Harley M Kilgore and Japan's World War II Business Practices', in West Virginia History (v 55), 1996: pp 127-142; available on-line at

Mae Sa Valley - The Samoeng Loop [map] (Chiang Mai: Golden Triangle Rider, 2006)

Map of Chiang Mai - Northern (Bangkok: PN Map, nd)

Map of Chiang Mai & Around (Bangkok: PN Group, nd)

Map of Mae Hong Son Scale 1:180,000 (Bangkok: Prannok Witthaya Maps Center, nd)

Map of Tak-Mae Sot (Bangkok: PN Map, 2002)

Maps NE47-1,2,5,6 Scale 1:250,000 (Washington: Defense Mapping Agency, 1973) via

Maps NE47-1,2,5,6 Scale 1:250,000 (Washington: US Army Map Service, Corps of Engineers, 1958) via

Maps: Tactical Pilot Charts (St Louis MO, Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center)

Mason, Andrew, A Different Brand of English: a Travel Guide to WW2, Singapore, the Thai-Burma Railway & Related WW2 Subjects (Burleigh QLD: Poseidon, 2004)

Matsumoto, Itsuya, Shamu no Nihonjin shashinshi [Japanese Photographers in Siam] (Tokyo: Mekong, 1992) [ 松本 逸也, シャムの日本人写真師 (東京:  めこん, 1992)]

Matthews, Tony, Shadows Dancing: Japanese Espionage against the West 1939-1945 (New York: St Martin's Press, 1993)

Maurer, Maurer, ed, Combat Squadrons of the Air Force: World War II (Montgomery AL: Maxwell Air Force Base, 1969)

McCarthy, James, An Englishman's Siamese Journals 1890-1893 (no orig publ info; reprint: Bangkok: Siam Media, no date)

McCarthy, James, Surveying and Exploring in Siam (London: Murray, 1900; reprint: Bangkok: White Lotus, 1994) [copy]

McCoy, Alfred W, The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, rev ed (Chicago: Lawrence Hill, 2003)

McEnery, John, Epilogue in Burma 1945-1948: the Military Dimensions of British Withdrawal (Tunbridge Wells: Spellmount, 1990; reprint Bangkok: White Lotus, 2000)

McNab, Chris & Philip Trewhitt, Fighting Vehicles of the World (Kent: The Grange, 2004) [copy]

Mid-Continent Instruments and Avionics, Installation Manual and Operating Instructions: 3300 Series Directional Gyro (Wichita: Mid-Continent Instruments and Avionics, 2007)

Miller, Edward S, Bankrupting the Enemy: the US Financial Siege of Japan before Pearl Harbor (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2007)

Montana State University: Convert Geographic Units

Moore, W Robert, '"Land of the Free" in Asia', The National Geographic Magazine(65:5) May 1934, pp 531-576

Nancy Chandler's Map of Chiang Mai, 16 edition (Bangkok: Nancy Chandler Graphics, 2004)

Google Earth

Google Maps, Thailand: Nations On-line Project

Ruprecht Nenntiel, How do bullets fly?

Ness, Leland, World War II Tanks and Fighting Vehicles (New York: HarperCollins, 2002)

No 211 Squadron RAF

Numnonda, Thamsook, Thailand and the Japanese Presence, 1941-45 (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1977), pp 58, 83-95

On-line forum pages related to this website:

Axis History Forum: Aircraft guns and bullet behavior

Delphi Forum: Military Guns and Ammunition, ID of WW2 a/c guns hitting Thai bridge

j-aircraft message boards: ID of WW2 aircraft guns & ammunition holing a Thai railway bridge 

Tullys Port at CombinedFleet: ID of WW2 aircraft guns & ammunition holing a Thai bridge

International Ammunition Association: Terminal ballistics: ID of WW2 amm holing a Thai bridge

metro (ww2aircraft): Terminal ballistics: ID of WW2 amm holing a Thai railway bridge

WWIIF: ID of WW2 aircraft guns & ammunition holing a Thai railway bridge

Ongsakul, Sarassawadee, Ancient Communities in the Chiang Mai-Lamphun Basin (Bangkok: Amarin, 2000); transl from Thai

Ongsakul, Sarassawadee, History of Lan Na (Chiang Mai: Silkworm, 2005); transl by Chitraporm Tanratanakul from Thai text © 2001

Pacific War Online Encyclopedia: Japanese 57mm Ho‑401 Cannon

---, Ki-102 "Randy".

Pawakapan, Niti "'Almost a love story': Japanese soldiers in north-west Thailand", in South East Asia Research [Journal] (9:2) 2001, pp 149-172 [copy]

Pearson, Michael, The Burma Air Campaign 1941-1945 (Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Books, 2006) [copy]

Phathanothai, Sirin, The Dragon's Pearl (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994)

Phomthongkom, Surasak, et al, Project on the history and relationship between Japanese and Thai in Changwat Mae Hong Son during World War II (no publication data, interviews were conducted in 1998) [โครงการศึกษาเชิงประวัติศาสตร์ และสัมพันธ์ภาพชาวญี่ปุ่น  และชาวไทยในจังหวัดแม่ฮ่องสอน ระหว่างสงครามโลกครั้งที่๒  เขฅอำเภอเมืองแม่ฮ่องสอน  สุรศคดิ์ ป้อมทองคำ ฯ ((no © notice) Chiang Mai National Museum library)

Point Asia on-line map of Thailand (

RAF Squadrons: 211 Squadron

Rattanachai, Sak(sern) S, [Japan in Lampang during World War II] (Lampang: unpublished, nd) รัตนชัย, สักดิ์, ปาะวัติศาสต์ศึกษายุทธเวหาลำปาง,

RCG Forum: Rikugun Ki-93

Recht, RF, and TW Ipson, Final Report: The Dynamics of Terminal Ballistics (Denver: Denver Research Institute, 1962)

Reynolds, E Bruce, Thailand and Japan's Southern Advance 1940-1945 (New York: St Martin's Press, 1994)

Reynolds, E Bruce, Thailand's Secret War (Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2005)

Road Map of Northern Thailand (? PTT, nd)

Rosenberg, Zvi and Erez Dekel Terminal Ballistics (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2012) Kindle edition: DOI:2012 10.1007/ 978-3-642-25305-8

Rosenberg, Zvi; Dekel, Erez (2012-03-02). Terminal Ballistics (Kindle Locations 2-4). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Kindle Edition.

Rotfaithai Forum: Bridges

---, Stations & Stops

Royal Air Force:  No 26 - 30 Squadron Histories

---, 67 Squadron RAF

---, 89 Squadron

---, 176 Squadron

---, 177 Squadron

Royal Thai Air Force History during the Greater East Asian Prosperity War[Brawat Kong Thap Akat Thai Nai Songkhram Maha Asia Borapha 358.4 ท9เป] (Bangkok: __________, 1982) [Thai language, copy]

Royal Thai Army History during the Greater East Asian Prosperity War (Bangkok: ________, 1998)[Thai language, copy]

Royal Thai Survey Department (RTSD) Maps, 7017 Series (Bangkok: RTSD, 1969-2007)

Satrabhaya, Boonserm, Air History of Chiang Mai (Bangkok: Saitharn Publication House, 2003) Engl transl by Wiyada Kantarod (unpublished)

Satrabhaya, Boonserm, Chīang Mai kap phai thāng ʻākāt (Chiang Mai, an Air History) (Bangkok: Winyuchon, 2003) [สาตราภัย, บุญเสิม, เชียงใหม่กับภัยทางอากาศ (กรุงเทพฯ: วิญฌูชน, 2003)]

Satrabhaya, Boonserm, Chiang Mai Memories (Chiang Mai: Chao Books, 2011) [trilingual: Thai, Japanese, English]

Satrabhaya, Boonserm, Lānnā-- mư̄a tawā (Yesteryear in Lanna) (Chiang Mai: Bookworm, 2007) [สาตราภัย, บุญเสิม, ลัานนา . . . เมื่อตะวา (เชียงใหม่: ผลิตและจัดจำหน่ายโดย, 2007)]

Scott, Peter Dale, Drugs, Oil, and War (Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003)

Seagrave, Gordon, Burma Surgeon (New York: Norton, 1943)

Seagrave, Gordon, Burma Surgeon Returns (New York: Norton, 1946)

Seagrave, Sterling, 'Chapter 11: The Durian Tree', Lords of the Rim: The Invisible Empire of the Overseas Chinese (New York: GP Putnam & Sons, 1995), pp 149-162; fomerly on-line at

Senshi Sosho 05: Irawaji kaisen Biruma bōei no hatan [War History Series 5: Burma Campaigns] (Tokyo: Asagumo Shimbunsa, 1967) [ 戦史叢書, 5, ビルマ攻略作戦 (東京: 朝雲新聞社,  昭和42 [1967])]

Senshi Sosho 15: Inpāru sakusen Biruma no bōei  [War History Series 15: Imphal Operation: Defense of Burma] (Tokyo: Asagumo Shimbunsa, 1968) [ 戦史叢書, 15, インパ-ル作戦 : ビルマの防衛 (東京  : 朝雲新聞社  , 昭和43 [1968])]

Senshi Sosho 25: Irawaji kaisen: Biruma bōei no hatan [War History Series, Vol 25, Irrawaddy Campaign: Collapse of Defense of Burma]  (Tokyo: Asagumo Shimbunsa, 1969) [戦史叢書, 25, イラワジ会戦 : ビルマ防衛の破綻 (東京  : 朝雲新聞社  , 昭和44 [1969])]

Senshi Sosho 32: Shittan Meigō sakusen: Biruma sensen no hōkai to Tai [War History Series, Vol 32, Defeat on Burma Front and Defense of Indochina Peninsula] (Tokyo: Asagumo Shimbunsa, 1969) [ 戦史叢書, 32, シッタン.明号作戦: ビルマ戦線の崩壊と泰 (東京 : 朝雲新聞社 , 昭和 44 [1969])]

Senshi Sosho 34: Nanpō shinkō rikugun kōkū sakusen [War History Series, Vol 34, Southern Army Air Operations] (Tokyo: Asagumo Shimbunsa, 1970) [ 戦史叢書,34, 南方進攻陸軍航空作戦 ([東京] : 朝雲新聞社 , [1970])]

Sher Green, LLP, Ltd (submitted for Mae Hong Son), Report on Archeological Research for the Japanese Soldiers Burial Project --- World War II Era in Mae Hong Son Province (Chiang Mai: Archaeology & National Museum Office 6, 1999) [รายงาน การ สําร จอขุดค้น ตาม โครงการ คึกษาเชิงอนรักษ์แหล่งฝังศพทหารญี่บุน สมัย สงครามโลกครั้งที่ 2 จังหวัดแม่ฮ่องสอน หัางหุ้นส่วนจํากัดเฌอกรีน]

Shores, Christopher et al, Bloody Shambles, Vol I, The Drift to War to the Fall of Singapore (London: Grub Street, 2002)

Shores, Christopher, Air War for Burma, Vol III, The Allied Air Forces Fight Back in South East Asia (London: Grub Street, 2005)

Shores, Christopher, Bloody Shambles, Vol II, The Complete Account of the Air War in the Far East (London: Grub Street, 2002)

Short, Stanley, On Burma's Eastern Frontier (London: Marshall, Morgan & Scott, 1945)

Sivaram, M, The Road To Delhi (Rutland VT: Tuttle, 1966)

Smith, Patrick, Japan: A Reinterpretation (New York: Pantheon Books, 1997)

Smyth, H Warington, Five Years in Siam from 1891 to 1896, Vols 1 & 2 (London: Murray, 1898; reprint: Chestnut Hill MA: Elibron Classics, 2006)

Southeast Asia Command, Communications in Siam, French Indo-China, and Yunnan (?: Inter-Service Topographical Department (SEAC), 01 Mar 1945): see USAF Archive microfilm reel A8021: 0156-0205.

Spector, Ronald H, Eagle against the Sun: the American War with Japan (New York: Vinage Books, 1985

Spector, Ronald H, In the Ruins of Empire: the Japanese Surrender and the Battle for Postwar Asia (New York: Random House, 2007)

Stamp, L Dudley, "Siam Before the War", The Geographical Journal XCIX:5-6 (1942), pp 209-224

Stanley, Roy M, Prelude to Pearl Harbor (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982)

Storry, Richard, The Double Patriots: A Study of Japanese Nationalism (London: Chatto and Windus, 1957)

Stowe, Judith A, Siam becomes Thailand (Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii, 1991) [copy]

Swan, William L, Japan's Economic Relations with Thailand: The Rise to "Top Trader" 1875-1942 (Bangkok: White Lotus, 2009)

Tactical Pilot Chart (TPC)  J-10C Burma, Laos, Thailand (Riverdale MD: NIMA, 1983)

Takeyama, Michio, Harp of Burma (Boston, Tuttle, 1966; reprinted Tuttle, 2001); transl by Howard Hibbett

Tamayama, Kazuo and John Nunneley, Tales by Japanese Soldiers of the Burma Campaign 1942-1945 (London: Cassell, 2000; reprint 2001)

Tatsuro, Izumiya, The Minami Organ, 2nd Ed (Rangoon: Arts & Science University, 1985); transl by U Tun Aung Chain from Sono na wa Minami Kikan (Tokyo: Tokuma Shoten, 1967)

Teng, et al, "Protection performance of double-layered metal shields against projectile impact", Jl of Mechanics of Materials and Structures, (2:7) (Sep 2007), pp 1309-1330

Thailand [map] (Munich: Nelles Verlag GmbH, 1984)

Thailand North [map] (?: Berndtson, nd)

Thailand Road Atlas (Bangkok: Tourism Authority of Thailand, nd)

The Mae Hong Son Loop [map] (Chiang Mai: Golden Triangle Rider, 2002)

'The Society's New Map of Asia', in The National Geographic Magazine, (64:6) December 1933, pp 770-772

The Chiang Mai Foreign Cemetery Committee, De Mortuis, 6th Edition (Chiang Mai: Within Design Co, 2009)

Trewhitt, Philip, and Chris McNab, Fighting Vehicles of the World: over 600 tanks and AFVS of the world (Kent: Grange Books, 2004) (copy: original source private collection), esp, Chapter 4: 'Developing an Interpretation through Textual Analysis: The 1941 Case' (America's road to war in 1941)

Tsuji, Masanobu, Underground Escape, transl from Japanese by (Tokyo: Booth & Fukuda, 1952)

Umemoto, Hiroshi, Biruma kōkūsen : rengōgun kiroku no urazuke o eta rikugun kōkū butai no shōri 1, vol 1 [Burma Air War vol 1] (Tōkyō : Dai Nihon Kaiga, 2002) [ 梅本弘,  ビルマ航空戦 : 合軍記錄の裏付けを得た陸軍航空部隊の勝利上 (東京 :  大日本絵画, 2002)]

Umemoto, Hiroshi, Biruma kōkūsen: Nichi bei ei no shiryō o taishōshite egaita hayabusa no sentō kiroku. ge, vol 2  [Burma Air War vol 2] (Tōkyō: Dai Nihon Kaiga, 2002) [梅本弘,  ビルマ航空戦. 下 / 日米英の資料を対照して描いた (東京 : 大日本絵画, 2002)]

US Air Forces, "American Listing of Military Objectives in Thailand in Reference to Maps: Mandalay, Rangoon, Bangkok. Scale 1:1000000" (India: Headquarters US Air Forces, Tenth US Air Force, 22 Mar 1942) (USAF Archive microfilm reel A8233:pp1269-1272)

United States Army in World War II: Pictorial Record: The War Against Japan (Washington: Center of Military History, US Army, 1988)

US Army Air Forces, Manual for Fighter Gun Harmonization (Washington: Army Air Forces,1945)

US Army Air Forces, Pilot's Flight Operating Instructions for Army Models P-38H Series, P-38J-5 and F-5B-1 (Chicago: Marshall‑White, 1943)

US Army Forces Far East, Thailand Operations Record: Japanese Monograph No 177 (Headquarters: Army Forces Far East, 1953)

US Department of Defense, Military Handbook: Survivability, Aircraft, Nonnuclear, Airframe, Vol 2 [MIL-HDBK 336-2] (Washington: US DoD, 1983)

US Department of Transportation, Bridge Inspector's Reference Manual (Washington: National Highway Institute, 2006)

US War Department, Ammunition Inspection Guide [TM 9-s1904] (Washington: War Department, 1944)

US War Department, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces (Washington: USGPO, 1944) 

War Thunder Online Forum: Aircraft Gunnery and Ballistics

Warbird's Forum (Dan Ford)

Warbirds of India (Jagan Pillarisetti)

Watanabe, Yoshiyuki, Nihon rikugun gun yōki pāfekuto gaido 1910-1945 [The Perfect Guide to Japanese Army Aviation](Tokyo: Gakken, 2005) [ 渡部義之, 日本陸軍軍用機パーフェクトガイド: 1910-1945 (東京: 学研, 2005)]

Wat Gate Museum, Welcome to Chiangmai & Chiangrai: (link to WayBack Machine)

Whyte, BR, The Railway Atlas of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia (Bangkok: White Lotus, 2010)

Wikipedia: (with apologies) far too many articles to list individually here (see individual references in Notes columns)

Williams, Anthony G, Military Guns & Ammunition

Wilson, Constance M, and Lucien M Hanks, The Burma-Thailand Frontier over Sixteen Decades (Athens OH: Ohio Univ, Ctr for Int'l Studies, 1985) [copy]

Winichakul, Thongchai, Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation  (Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press, 1994; reprinted Chiang Mai: Silkworm, 2004)

Wiriyawit, Wimon (compiler), Free Thai (Bangkok: White Lotus Press, 1997)

Wood, WAR, Consul in Paradise (Bangkok: Trasvin, 1991)

Wright, Arnold, et al, Twentieth Century Impressions of Siam (London: Lloyd's, 1908)

Wright, Joseph J, The Balancing Act: a History of Modern Thailand (Bangkok: Asia Books, 1991), pp 111-131 [copy]

Young, Edward M, Aerial Nationalism (Washington: Smithsonian, 1995)

Younghusband, GJ, The Trans-Salwin Shan State of Kiang Tung (Chiang Mai: Silkworm, 2005)

Yūshi wa koko ni nemureruka : biruma indo tai senbotsusha ikotsu shūshū no kiroku  [Can mighty warriors sleep here? Record of collection of Japanese war dead in Burma, India, Thailand]  (Tokyo: Zen Biruma Senʼyū Dantai Renraku Kyōgikai [Burma Comrades Organization], 1980) [勇士はここに眠れるか―ビルマ・インド・タイ戦没者遺骨収集の記録, 東京: 全ビルマ戦友団体連絡協議会, 1980)]

?, Air to Air Gunnery - Theory and Application


Revision List
2014 Mar 29
First published on Internet
Updated as webpages added





The list of materials here should cover most references currently in webpage column notes, plus useful other sources related to the general subject of northwest Thailand during WWII.

The motivation for presenting a bibliography on this website was this author's having to cope with the practice among modern hardcopy publishers of omitting bibliographies, to rely instead exclusively on notes which relentlessly use the shorthand ibid and op cit and the like.

Anyone who has had to wade through tens of pages of fine print notes to find an original reference for an ibid should consider the utter disrespect of the publishing industry towards both authors and serious readers that the practice represents.

My thanks to Tom Yarborough for sharing what turned out to be a mutual sense of frustration and infuriation at the amounts of time lost in having to track ibids and op cits in otherwise well-written and well-researched books (Tom Yarborough email of 2115 hrs 26 Mar 2014).